The squamous epithelium of the cervix exhibits parakeratosis as a reaction to irritation and injury.
Chronic inflammation is also present in the epithelium and underlying lamina propria.
Uterine prolapse results from a weakening of pelvic ligaments and is usually seen in multiparous, post-menopausal women with a history of multiple vaginal deliveries. Patients may provide a history of an uncomfortable pressure and heavy sensation when standing for long periods of time and the symptoms are alleviated when lying down. In severe cases of prolapse, a mass (the uterus) can be seen at the introitus. This can lead to irritation and ulceration of the prolapsed organ.
Treatment consists of pelvic strengthening exercises (Kegels) and or pessaries. In patients with symptomatic and refractory cases, surgery is recommended to correct the defect. Alternatively, a vaginal hysterectomy may be an option for postmenopausal women.